Apparently, ‘information’ is causing trouble.
I found the following piece of text in an academic paper on institutional research, but thought it useful to point out here:
“The distinction between data and information, on the one hand, and between information and knowledge, on the other, remains typically vague and problematic. Disciplined use of these terms remains unresolved, giving rise to the substitution of ‘data’ for ‘information’ and the conflation of ‘information’ with ‘knowledge’ even though few would argue that ‘knowledge’ could ever be reduced to data. Nevertheless ‘data’ and ‘knowledge’ are unwittingly brought together by having the term ‘information’ act as an informal intermediate.”
[Bernard Longden & Mantz Yorke – Institutional Research: What problems are we trying to solve?]